Bülent Öztürk

New Inscriptions from Karadeniz Ereğli Museum III
(Herakleia Pontike and Tieion/Tios) *

Plates 24–27

Karadeniz Ereğli is situated on the southern coast of the Black Sea, within the province of Zonguldak in north-western Turkey. It is part of the important ancient coastal city of Herakleia Pontike, which took its name from the semi-god hero Heracles (in Turkish, the original name Herakleia has been converted into Ereğli). The ancient Greeks believed that Heracles journeyed into the underworld by passing through a cave located at the adjoining Archerusian promontory (Cape Baba). Epigraphical research on Hera­kleia Pontike began with antiquaries, archaeologists and epigraphists who visited the city from the end of the 19th century. These individuals include G. Perrot, J. Pargoire, G. Mendel, I. P. Makri, E. Kalinka, L. Robert, and F. K. Dörner.[1] Research into Herakleia’s inscriptions continued with publications in the mid- to late-twentieth century [2] until, in 1994, the first epigraphical corpus with 85 inscriptions and a prosopographia of Herakleia Pontike was presented by L. Jonnes and W. Ameling.[3] Further inscriptions from the handles of Heracleian amphorae, dated to the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., were presented by V. I. Kac and E. Teleaga.[4] However, since all these publications new inscrip­tions have entered the museum’s collections from archaeological excavations at Tieion/ Tios and other chance discoveries in Zonguldak province.

With the permission of the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s General Directorate of Culture Heritage and Museums and the directory of the Karadeniz Ereğli Museum, a new project began in 2007 to classify and to publish the Greek and Latin inscriptions in the Museum. The newly recorded inscriptions are all from Zonguldak province and date to the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. They include milestones and grave stones or stelai, dedications to gods, goddesses or they consist of lists of names. The ancient authors attribute the foundation of Herakleia to the Dorian Megarians and Boeotians: According to Ps. Scymnus and Pausanias, it was the Megarians and Boeotians together, while Justin and Euphorion suggested Boeotians as founders (Paus. V 26, 7; Justin XVI 3; Euph. Schol. Ap. Rhod. 155 ad 2.351–352a). Xenophon, Arrianus and Diodorus Siculus attributed it to the Megarians only (Xen. an. VI 2, 1; Arr. per. p. e. XIII, 3; Diod. XIV 31). The frequent usage of Doric dialect in the inscriptions of the city testifies to the Doric colonization of Herakleia.

So far, eighteen new inscriptions have been published in two articles. [5] In a third article a dedication to Heracles Alexikakos is presented,[6] in a fourth a funerary stele mentioning an ephebarchos and paraphylax from Herakleia[7], and in the most recent article two milestones from the inland route of Tios/Tieion dated to the periods of Septimius Severus and Caracalla are published. [8] In addition, results of the epigraphic research on Herakleia Pontike have been presented at an international symposium in Sinop (Turkey) [9] and all the inscriptions of the Museum were listed in a journal with their titles and contents.[10] In the present paper, five new inscriptions — found in the districts of Alaplı, Devrek, Gökçebey, and Ereğli — all in Zonguldak and all dating from the Roman imperial period are presented. Their importance lies in the new information they provide on the social history and prosopography of Herakleia Pontike and Tios/Tieion as well as the ethnicity and the status of individuals in Roman Bithynia. These new inscriptions, with English translations and epigraphical explanations, are presented below.

1. Honors for Gnaeus Aemilius Pontikos/Pontianos (pl. 24, fig. 1)

Rectangular, basalt block used as plinth broken at top and at right. There is a profiled moulding between the upper part and the surface of the inscription. The inscription is located on the front side of the plinth. Currently exhibited in the garden of the Museum.

Inv. No.: From the study collection.

Provenance: District of Devrek, Town of Özbağı, area of Hüseyinbeyler, possibly from the necropolis area of Tieion/Tios.

Measurements: H: 0.68 m; W: 0.40 m; D: 0.24 m; LH: 0,04 m–0,045 m

Date: 2nd–3rd century AD

The uncle Marcus Aemilius (?) Thalassios, the younger, (honoured) Gnaeus Aemilius Pontikos/Pontianos, son of Gnaeus (?).

2. Ποντικός or Ποντιανός: these names are known from inscriptions of Tios, one of which was found in the southern territory (in the Gökçebey district) and contains both of them. [11] Ποντικός is attested in an unpublished name list from Tios. [12]

2. Ostotheke of Clodius? and his wife Dionysia (pl. 25, fig. 2a–c)

Rectangular marble lid of an ostotheke with gabled roof and acroteria, broken at left and at the back. A seated bull is depicted in relief on one of the sloping faces of the lid; its head is broken and missing. The right front and hind legs and tail of the bull are visible. The inscription is located on the front side of the lid, below the relief. Currently exhibited in the garden of the Museum.

Inv. No.: 2013/6 (A)

Provenance: District of Alaplı (Herakleia Pontike)

Measurements: H: 0.18 m; W: 0.60 m; D: 0.58 m; LH: 0.01 m–0.033 m

Date: Roman Imperial Period (on the basis of the letters)

Clodius?, son of …..-siphilos, (died) at the age of 75. Dionysia, daughter of Dionysios?, wife of Clodius, (died) at the age of ?. Farewell!

2. Κ̣λ̣ω̣δ̣[ίου]: According to the frequent expression γυνὰ δέ and to the name of Dionysia’s husband Κ̣λ̣ω̣δ̣[ίου], the beginning of the inscription may be completed as Κλώδιος (= Clodius). This name is also attested in an inscription of Herakleia Pontike. [13]

1. -]σιφίλου: For the many names ending in -σίφιλος see the reverse indexes in LGPN.

Διονυ[σ-: Among the theophoric names deriving from Dionysos, Διονύσιος is very common in Herakleia. [14]

2. γυνά = γυνή: Doric -α for koine -η.

3. Ostotheke of Diomedes and his wife Kotta (pl. 26, fig. 3a–c)

Rectangular ostotheke from a local andesite with a lid with pediment and acroteria. The right back edge of the lid is broken. The inscription is located on the front side of the ostotheke. Currently exhibited in the garden of the Museum.

Inv. No.: 2012 / 29 (A)

Provenance: District of Alaplı, Town of Gümeli (Herakleia Pontike)

Measurements: Ostotheke: H: 0.405 m; W: 0.31 m; D: 0.33 m; Lid: H: 0.13 m; W: 0.47 m; D: 0.38 m; LH: 0.024 m–0.03 m

Date: 2nd century AD – first half of 3rd century AD (on the basis of the letters)

Diomedes, son of Chrysion, (died) at the age of 70. Farewell! Kotta, daughter of Paterion, wife of Diomedes, (died) at the age of 60. Farewell!

3. Κόττα may be the local usage and the female equivalent of the masculinum name Κοττης/Κοτης, Κοττᾶς/Κοτᾶς or Κοττος which are attested in the inscriptions of Asia Minor. [15]

4–5. Διομήδητος must be a heteroclite genitive form of Διομήδης instead of the normal Διομήδους.

4. Grave stele of Dionysios and his daughter/wife Kleopatra (pl. 27, fig. 4)

Rectangular white marble stele with pediment. A part of the surface of the pediment on the right is broken. In the middle of the stele there is a rectangular recess with the relief of a funeral banquet (symposium): A bearded male figure dressed in khiton, lying on the kline and holding a bowl in his left hand and a wreath in his right hand. Across him on the left is a female figure dressed in khiton and himation that is pulled over the head, sitting on a separate seat in front of the kline. Under the seat of the woman is a (wool?) basket, in front of the kline a banquet table with food on it. The inscription is on the pediment. The stele is currently in the depot of the Museum.

Inv. No.: 2010/40(A)

Provenance: District of Gökçebey (Tieion/Tios)

Measurements: H: 0.50 m; W: 0.38 m; D: 0.075 m; LH: 0.005 m–0.01 m

Date: 2nd–3rd century AD

Dionysios, son of Ninos (died) at the age of ?; Kleopatra, daughter/wife of Dionysios, (died) at the age of ? Farewell!

1. Νῖνος: The name is known from ancient literary sources and inscriptions. [16]

5. Grave stone of Chrysogonos’ children: Aurelius Opikos and Aurelia Panmoiris (pl. 27, fig. 5)

Rectangular grave stone from local limestone consisting of two broken pieces which perfectly fit together; the lower, left and right parts are broken and missing. Currently in the depot of the Museum.

Inv. No.: 2011/26(A)-27(A)

Provenance: District of Ereğli, Area of Aktaş (Herakleia Pontike)

Measurements: W: 0.21 m; L: 1.76 m; D: 0.18 m; LH: 0.04 m–0.055 m

Date: 3rd century AD, after 212 (nomen gentile Aurelius)

Marcus? Aurelius Opikos, son of Chrysogonos, (grandson of Chrysogonos)?, who was loved by all, excellent, lived examplarily ? years. Farewell! Aurelia Panmoiris, daughter of Chrysogonos, wife of [- - -], lived examplarily ? years. Farewell!

1. [Μ(ᾶρκος)? Αὐρ(ήλιος) Χρυσ]ογόνου Ͻ Ὀπικός : Before the patronymic Χρυσογόνου a praenomen and a nomen gentile are expected. The patronymic sits between the nomen gentile and the cognomen Ὀπικός. Taking into consideration his sister’s nomen gentile Αὐρηλία, it is possible to suggest Μᾶρκος Αὐρήλιος (or just Αὐρήλιος) for the beginning of the name.

An inscribed sign is visible after [Χρυσ]ογόνου such as “Ͻ”. At first sight, it seems like the upper part of the letter rho (Ρ), which would suggest a cognomen Ῥοπικός deriving from the adjective ῥοπικός (ή, όν).[17] However from my point of view, this should be read as the abbre­viation mark of the grandfather’s name of the deceased = [Χρυσ]ογόνου β΄. Moreover, the cog­nomen Ὀπικός which is derived from the adjective ὀπικός (ή, όν)[18] is attested epigraphically in Aizanoi (Phrygia) [19] and on the island of Lipara[20], but Ῥοπικός is so far not attested epigraphically.

πασίφιλος, ἄριστος: The usage of the adjectives πασίφιλος [21] and ἄριστος as cognomina are known from inscriptions, and multiple cognomina are common among the members of the highest elite and the nobles. Here, πασίφιλος and ἄριστος are, however, rather honorific attributes of Aurelius Opikos.

2. Πανμοιρίς: is a new female cognomen that seems to originate from the combination of πᾶν and the name Μοῖρις. [22] Μοῖρις is attested in a Hellenistic decree of Kolophon, [23] in a name list of Smyrna,[24] and also in Miletos.[25] Κλεομοιρίς is a similar combination of words, which is attested at Philippoi in Makedonia.[26]

γοινά = is the iotacistic form of γυνά. [27] For the usage of Doric dialect in Herakleia see inscription no. 2.

Aurelia, the nomen gentile of Panmoiris, suggests a date after the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212 AD.


- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -


Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University
Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Department of Archaeology
Bomonti-Şişli 34308 İstanbul, Turkey

Bülent Öztürk

- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - - -


Tafel 24

Tafel 25

Tafel 26

Tafel 27

* I thank the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s General Directorate of Culture Heritage and Museums and Ahmet Mercan, the director of the Karadeniz Ereğli Museum, for giving me permission to work on the inscriptions. I am also grateful to archaeologists Ünver Göçen and Onur Arslan, as well as to the whole staff of the Museum, for their kind assistance and hospitality during our visits there. My special thanks to Sümer Atasoy (Emeritus, Karabük University) and İhsan Fahri Sönmez (independent researcher) for their support and contribution to the project. I warmly thank the anonymous reviewers for very constructive criticism as well as Thomas Corsten (Vienna University) and Tolga Özhan (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University) for their valuable comments and suggestions and to William Anderson (Melbourne University) for proof-reading the paper. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to Hüseyin Sami Öztürk (Marmara University) for helping me during the registration and reading of the inscriptions in the Museum.

[1] G. Perrot, E. Guillaume, J. Delbet, Exploration archéologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie d’une partie de la Mysie, de la Phrygie, de la Cappadoce et du Pont , Paris 1872, 15–19; J. Pargoire, Inscriptions d’Héraclée du Pont, BCH 22 (1898) 492–496; G. Mendel, Inscriptions de Bithynia, BCH 25 (1901) 1–92: 36–49; I. P. Makri, Ἡράκλεια τοῦ Πόντου, Athens 1908, 128–134; E. Kalinka, Aus Bithynien und Umgegend, JÖAI 28 (1933) Beiblatt 45–112: 96–102; L. Robert, Études Anatoliennes. Recherches sur les inscriptions grecques de l’Asie Mineure , Paris 1937, 272–296; F. K. Dörner, Vorbericht über eine im Herbst 1961 ausgeführte Reise in Bithynien , AAWW 99 (1962) 30–35; F. K. Dörner, Vorbericht über eine Reise in Bithynien und im bithynisch-paphlagonischen Grenzgebiet 1962 , AAWW 100 (1963) 132–139.

[2] F. Sokolowski, Lois sacrées de l’Asie Mineure, Paris 1955, no. 83; S. Şahin, Das Grab­mal des Pantomimen Krispos in Herakleia Pontike, ZPE 18 (1975) 293–297 (SEG 31, 1071);
F. K. Dörner (ed.), Tituli Asiae Minoris, IV: Tituli Bithyniae linguis graeca et latina conscripti, fasc. 1. Paeninsula Bithynica praeter Calchedonem, Nicomedia et Ager Nicomedensis cum sep­tentrionali meridianoque litore sinus Astaceni et cum lacu Sumonensi , Vienna 1978, no. 264;
E. Pfuhl, H. Möbius, Die ostgriechischen Grabreliefs, I–II, Mainz 1977–1979, no. 1744–1746, 2019, 2024 (SEG 29, 1361–1365); L. Jonnes, Three Inscriptions from Heracleia Pontica, EA 7 (1986) 97–100 = SEG 36, 1164–1166; M. Cremer, Hellenistisch-römische Grabstelen im nord­westlichen Kleinasien , 2. Bithynien, Bonn 1992, no. 172–174 (SEG 42, 1137–1139); T. Akkaya, Herakleia Pontike (Karadeniz Ereğlisi)’nin Tarihî Gelişimi ve Eski Eserleri , Istanbul 1994, 105–109, no. 1–4; 112–119, no. 11–21; 123, no. 31; 153, no. 94; 156, no. 105. It is worth mentioning that A. Avram has also prepared a renewed external prosopographia of Herakleia Pontike, see A. Avram, Prosopographia Ponti Euxini Externa, Leuven 2013, 144–228, no. 999–2100.

[3] L. Jonnes (ed.), The Inscriptions of Heracla Pontica. With a prosopographia Hera­cleotica by W. Ameling (IK 47), Bonn 1994 (I.Heraclea).

[4] V. I. Kac, A new chronology for the ceramic stamps of Herakleia Pontike , in: P. G. Bilde, J. M. Højte, V. F. Stolba (eds.), The Cauldron of Ariantas. Studies presented to A. N. Sceglov on the occasion of his 70th birthday , Aarhus 2003, 261–278 (SEG 53, 1428); E. Teleaga, Beiträge zur Chronologie der Amphorenstempel und der Amphoren von Heraklea Pontike , MBAH 22.1 (2003) 69–111.

[5] B. Öztürk, İ. F. Sönmez, New Inscriptions from the Karadeniz Ereğli Museum I, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 132 (2009) 129–138 (SEG 59, 1447–1454); B. Öztürk, İ. F. Sönmez, New Inscriptions from the Karadeniz Ereğli Museum II, Arkeoloji ve Sanat 137 (2011) 155–166 (SEG 61, 1066–1074).

[6] B. Öztürk, Karadeniz Ereğli Müzesi’nden Herakles Aleksikakos’a Sunulan Bir Adağın Düşündürdükleri (Some Thoughts on a Votive Offering Dedicated to Herakles Aleksikakos from Karadeniz Ereğli Museum) , in: B. Takmer, E. N. Akdoğu-Arca, N. Gökalp (eds.), Vir Doctus Anatolicus. Studies in Memory of Sencer Şahin / Sencer Şahin Anısına Yazılar , Istanbul 2016, 682–698.

[7] B. Öztürk, A Funerary Stele from Herakleia Pontike. Ephebarkhos and Paraphylax Aurelius Artemonianos Menios , ZPE 199 (2016) 99–103.

[8] B. Öztürk, Two new Milestones from Tios/Tieion in the Karadeniz Ereğli Museum , Philia 2 (2016) 83–91.

[9] B. Öztürk, Herakleia Pontika (Karadeniz Ereğli) Antik Kenti Epigrafik Araştırmaları ve Tarihsel Sonuçları ( Epigraphical researches of the ancient city Heraclea Pontica and Historical Results ), in: N. Türker (ed.), I. Uluslararası Karadeniz Kültür Kongresi Bildirileri Kitabı / Ist International Conference on the Black Sea Regional Culture Proceedings Book, 6–9 Ekim/
October 2011, Sinop
, Karabük 2013, 505–528.

[10] B. Öztürk, Karadeniz Ereğli Müzesi (Herakleia Pontike & Tios/Tieion) Epigrafik Araştırmaları 2015 , TEBE Haberler 41 (2016) 28–31.

[11] The inscription was brought to Karadeniz Ereğli Museum in 2000 (inv. no. A.00.14.1). For the unauthorized publication of the inscription from photographs (with many errors) see
E. Laflı, E. Christof, Hadrianopolis, I: Inschriften aus Paphlagonia (BAR International Series 2366), Oxford 2012, 121, no. 111; for addenda and corrigenda to this inscription see
P. Thonemann, Inscriptions from Hadrianopolis, Tieion, Iulia Gordos and Toriaion , Philia 1 (2015) 85–86, no. 5. A new article (corrigendum and addendum) is being prepared for this inscription and will be published soon.

[12] For a translation and further information concerning the inscription see B. Öztürk, Küçükasya’nın Batı Karadeniz Kıyısında Bir Antik Kent: Tios (Tieion) , Marmara University, Institute of Social Sciences, Department of Ancient History, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Istanbul 2012, 188, Ep17. For the name see LGPN VA, 374, s.v.; VB, 360, s.v. “Ποντικός”.

[13] I.Heraclea 79 (the agoranomos Clodius, son of Rufus).

[14] I.Heraclea 11, 15, 20, 24, 29, 60, 65, 77 (LGPN VA, 141,s.v. “Διονύσιος”); Öztürk, Sönmez 2009 (n. 5) 130, no. 1 ( SEG 59, 1447) and in the following inscription published in this paper.

[15] For all attestations in the inscriptions of Asia Minor and comments see L. Robert, Hellenica, VI, Paris 1948, 12–13. See alsoLGPN VA, 255, s.v. “Κοττᾶς”; “Κοττος”; VB, 244, s.v. “Κοτης”; “Κοτᾶς”.

[16] W. Pape, G. Benseler,Wörterbuch der griechischen Eigennamen, Braunschweig 31911, 1010; LGPN VA, 338, s.v. “Νῖνος”.

[17] H. G. Liddell, R. Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford 91940, 1575, s.v. “ῥοπικός” = meaning “inclined”.

[18] Liddell, Scott (n. 17) 1238, s.v. “ὀπικός” = “made of opium”.

[19] M. Waelkens, Die kleinasiatischen Türsteine. Typologische und epigraphische Unter­suchungen der kleinasiatischen Grabreliefs mit Scheintür , Mainz 1986, no. 45 = W. M. Cox,
A. Cameron, J. Cullen, B. Levick, S. Mitchell, J. Potter, M. Waelkens, D. Nash, Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua, IX. Monuments from the Aezanitis, Manchester 1988, List 186, P239 C.

[20] L. Bernabó-Brea, M. Cavalier, L. Campagna (eds.),Meligunìs-Lipára, XII. Le iscrizioni lapidarie greche e latine delle isole eolie, Palermo 2003, no. 257.

[21] As a name, Πασίφιλος is attested in inscriptions of Paphlagonian Pompeioupolis, see
Ch. Marek, Katalog der Inschriften von Pompeiopolis, in: id., Stadt, Ära und Territorium in Pontus-Bithynia und Nord Galatia , Tübingen 1993, 141, no. 16. For the name see Pape, Benseler (n. 16) 1144, s.v.; LGPN I–IV, s.v. “Πασίφιλος”. A name ending in -σίφιλος is also in the inscription no. 2 of this paper.

[22] For Μοῖρις see Pape, Benseler (n. 16) 939, s.v.; LGPN VA, 320, s.v. “Μοῖρις”.

[23] B. D. Meritt, Inscriptions of Colophon, AJPh 56 (1935) 359–372, no. 1.

[24] G. Petzl, Die Inschriften von Smyrna, II.1 (IK 24.1), Bonn 1987, no. 687.

[25] Th. Wiegand (ed.), Milet. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen seit dem Jahre 1899 , Berlin 1906, I (3) 122 (LGPN VB, s.v. “Μοῖρις”).

[26] SEG 38, 660.

[27] On this see C. Brixhe,Essai sur le grec anatolien au début de notre ère, Nancy 21987, 48; F. T. Gignac, A grammar of the Greek papyri of the Roman and Byzantine periods ,
I. Phonology, Milan 1976, 198f.